More than 13,000 Indians, trapped by a colonial law, are suspended in a legal blackhole. Who are they? Why do they face prison sentences for things they have said or done under a law that most democratic countries have abolished? How do the State and the courts use this archaic law? Explore India’s first public, empirical and investigative repository on the use of sedition.


More than 800 sedition cases have been filed against 13,000 Indians since 2010.
To view data, click on a state.



The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of sedition in 1962, stressing it could be invoked only against those who incite or intend to incite violence. But governments have used the law to suppress dissent, protest movements and criticism of policies and politicians.


Explore trends in sedition cases. Click on a trend to find number of people accused and cases filed. Use the ADVANCED panel to refine results or plot your own patterns.

Select multiple categories in any combination
The Accused
The Complainant
The Means
Selected list of categories


Since 2010, Indians have spent nearly 3 million hours in prison on charges of sedition. These data reveal how the judiciary approaches sedition cases and the time taken for a decision.

From FIR to Bail: Time Spent in Prison

An accused was most likely to spend upto 50 days in prison until a trial court granted bail and upto 200 days until a high court did so.

Bail Outcomes in Sedition Cases (2010 - 2021)

In 1,386 verdicts across three courts, trial courts tended to reject bail applications more than they allowed them. At the high court, for every bail application rejected, seven were granted.

Trial Courts

In Uttar Pradesh, 60% of bail applications at trial courts were rejected in cases related to protest, criticism, religious hate, or insults to national symbols.

High Courts

At the appellate level, 99% of bail applications in Uttar Pradesh were granted.

Why do courts grant or reject bail?

A 32-year-old Muslim baker booked for uploading a Facebook profile photo was granted bail after three months in prison. That the accused has spent a “long time in custody” was the main reason why court granted bail.

Bail Decisions Across Contexts

“How is it that out of thousands of people, only the ones connected to Bajrang Dal heard the sloganeering? Particularly when they claim the autorickshaw went around the busiest parts of the town saying these slogans?”-Lawyer of accused arrested after 2017 ICC Champions Trophy.

Trial Court Verdicts By Years

In Maharashtra, 19 farmers were accused of burning the Constitution and shouting slogans during a peaceful protest in 2011. All were acquitted in 2013.

From FIR to Acquittal: Time spent for trials to conclude

Trial Court Verdict Across Contexts

One person in Assam was arrested but later acquitted for hoisting a black flag outside the office of the All Assam Koch Rajbongshi Students' Union.